Nutritive Value and Anthelmintic Properties of Selected Leguminous Shrubs and Trees for Goats
Keywords:Degradability, leguminous forages, tannin, anthelmintics, goats
AbstractTwo related studies were conducted to determine the nutritive value and anthelmintic properties of eight tree legumes used as goat feeds. The degradation characteristics, total extractable phenol (TPEH) and condensed tannin (CT) of Acacia (Samanea saman), Desmanthus (Desmanthus virgatus), Rensonii (Desmodium cineria), Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), Flemingia (Flemingia macrophylla), Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium), Grandiflora (Sesbania grandiflora), and Sesban (Sesbania sesban) were determined. Except for Flemingia, the different legumes contained highly soluble and degradable components that can provide immediate supply of nitrogen and fermentable matter to meet nutritional needs. Flemingia and Leucaena had more than 65% extractable tannins and contain high condensed tannin (CT) that could potentially reduce gastro-intestinal parasites in goats. Other species had minimal or no CT content. Feeding the tree-legumes provided cheap source of digestible organic matter, while feeding Flemingia and Leucaena was expected to reduce internal parasites in goats because they contained anthelmintics.
Alam MR, Amin MR, Kabir AKMA and Moniruzzaman MD. 2004. Nutritive values of some tanniferous tree legume forages in Bangladesh. Proc. 11th AAAP Congress. 3:376-378.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1984. Official methods of analysis. 14 ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC.
Barcelo PM and Barcelo JR. 2012. The potential of Samanea saman (Jack) Merr pods as feed for goat. International Journal of Zoology Research. 2 (1): 40-43.
Barry TN and Duncan SJ. 1984. Role of condensed tannins in the nutritional value of Lotus pedunculatus for sheep 1. Voluntary intake. Br. J. Nutri. 51:485-491.
Butter NL, Dawson JM, Wakelin DP and Buttery J. 2000. Effect of dietary tannin and protein concentration on nematode infection (T. colubriformis) in lambs. J. Agric. Sci.134, 89-99, Camp.
Chen XB. 1995. NEWAY computer program, Rowet Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen, UK.
D’Mello JPF. 1992. Chemical constraints to the use of tropical legumes in animal nutrition. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 38:237-261.
Degen AA, Mishhorr T, Makkar HPS, Kam MR, Benjamin W, Becker K and Schwarts HJ. 1998. Effect of Acacia saligna with and without administration of polyethelyn glycol on dietary intake in desert sheep. Animal Prod. 67:491-498.
Drew K. 2000. Deer Feeding and Management. In:Proc. of the New Zealand Grassl. Assoc. 61: 5761.
Fall-Toure S, B Michalet-Doreau, E Traore, Fiot D and Richard D. 1998. Occurrence of digestive interactions in forage-based diets for sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 74:258-265.
Goering HK, and Van Soest PJ. 1970. Forage fiber analysis. United States Dept. of Agric. A.R.S. Handbook No. 379.
ILCA (International Livestock Center for Africa). 1998. Forage outreach for sub-humid West Africa. ILCA Newsletter. 2:7-12
Julkunen-Tiitto R. 1985. Phenolic constituents in the leaves of Northern Willows: Methods for the analysis of certain phenolics. J. Agric. Food Chem. 33:213-217
Khan LP and Hernandez AD. 1999. Tannins with Anthelmintic Properties. Tannins in Livestock and Human Nutrition.Proc. of the International Workshop. Aelaide, Australia. 240-452 pp.
Kibon A and Ørskov ER. 1993. The use of degradation characteristics of browse plants to predict intake and digestibility by goats. Brit. Soc. of Anim. Prod. 57: 247-251
Kummar R and D’Mello JPF. 1995. Anti-nutritional factors in forage legumes. In: Tropical Legumes in Animal Nutrition (Ed. J. P. F. D’Mello and C. Devendra). CAB International, Wallingford, UK. pp. 95-133
Lanting ELF, Atega TA, Villar EC and Robles AY. 2003. In sacco evaluation of protein solubility in rice straw-legume rations containing varying levels of tannin. Phil. J. of Vet. and Anim. Sci. 29:20-30.
McDonald, I. 1981. A revised model for the estimation of protein degradability in the rumen. J.agric. Sci., Camb.96: 251-252.
Makkar HPS. 1993. Antinutrional factors in food for livestock. Animal Production in Developing Countries (Ed. M. Gill, E. Owen, G. E. Pollot and Lawrence).Brit. Soc. Animal Prod. 16:69-85.
Merkel RG, Pond KR, JC Burns and Fisher DS. 1999. Intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization of three tropical tree legumes II, As protein supplements. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. Elsevier. 82:107-120.
Molan AL, Waghorn GC and McNabb WC. 2002. Effect of condensed tannins on egg hatching and larval development of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in-vitro. Vet. record. 150 (3), 65-69 (5).
National Research Council. 1988. Nutrient requirement for goats. 6th Rev.Ed. Washington, DC. National Academy Press. 160 pp.
Ondiek JO, Tuitoek JK, Abdulrazak SA, Bareeba FB, and Fujihara T. 2000. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 139 (9): 1249-1254
Orden EA, Cruz EM, Espino AN, Battad ZM, Reyes RG, Orden MaEM, Frias NO, Gibe AG, Del Rosario NA and Villar EC. 2014. Pelletized forage-based rations as alternative feeds for improving goat productivity. Tropical Grasslands – Forrajes Tropicales. Online Journal. 1 (2): 108-110.
Orden EA, Cruz EM, Orden MaEM, Delos Reyes PQS, Galamgam AS, Orden BCM, Bolivar RHB and Domingo IJ. 2005. Multipurpose tree legumes as supplements to napier-based diet fed to upgraded Philippine goats. Research and Development Highlights. RET-Central Luzon State University.
Orden EA, Cruz EM, Orden MaEM, Abdulrazak SA, Ichinohe T and Fujihara T. 2000. Leucocephala leucocephal and Gliricidia sepium supplementationin sheep fed with ammonia treated rice straw: Effects on intake, digestibility, microbial protein yield and live-weight changes. Asian-Australasian J. Anim. Sci. 13(12): 1659-1666. Ørskov ER and McDonald I. 1977. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Dci. 92: 499-503.
Ørskov ER and Ryle M. 1990. Energy nutrition in ruminants. Elsevier Applied Aci. London.
Osuji PO and Odenyo AA. 1997. The role of legume forages as supplements to low quality roughagesILRI experience. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. Elsevier. 69:27-38.
Perez-Maldonado RA and Norton BW. 1996. The effects of condensed tannins from Desmodium intortum and Calliandra calotyrsus on protein and carbohydrate digestion in sheep and goats. Bri. J. Nutr., 76:515-533.
Porter LJ, Hrstich LN and Chan BGM. 1986. The conversion of proyanidins and prodelphinidins to cyaniding and delphinidin. Phytochem. 25:223-230
Sevilla CC, Lanting EF and Billena MS. 2002. Protein solubility of rice straw-stylo (Stylosanthes guyanensis) diet in the rumen of sheep as affected by Flemingia (Flemingia macrophylla) and polyethylene glycol. Phil. J. Vet. An. Sci. 25 (1):57-62
Shahjalal, M and Topps JH. 2000. Feedign Sesbania leaves as a sole feed on growth and nutrient utilization in goats. Asian-Aus. J. of Anim. Sci. Vol 4:487-489
Yahaya MS, Takashi J, Matsuoka S, Kibon A and Dibal D. 2000. Evaluation of arid region browse species from North Eastern Nigeria using pen fed goats. Small Ruminants Research. 38:83-86
Waghorn GC, Douglas GB, Niezen JH, McNabb WC and Foote AG. 1998. Forages with condensed tannins -–their management and nutrition value for ruminants. Proc. N.Z. Grassl. Assoc. 60: 89-98
Woodward A, and Reed JD. 1989. The influence of Polyphenolica on the nutritive value of Browse: A summary of research conducted at ILCA. Bulletin No. 35. Dec. 2-11, 1989. ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.